Social Class in Europe

Relation to means of production
Owner Employees

Number of employees

Many Capitalists Expert managers Skilled managers Nonskilled managers Managers

Relation to authority

1 4 7 10 100
Few Small employers Expert supervisors Skilled supervisors Nonskilled supervisors Supervisors
2 5 8 11 100
None Petty bourgeoisie Experts Skilled workers Nonskilled workers Non-management
3 6 9 12 100
Experts Skilled Nonskilled
100 100 100
Relation to scarce skills

Reference: Data — European Social Survey. Class scheme — E.O. Wright (1997): Class Counts: Comparative Studies in Class Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 1-42. Scripting — H. Leiulsfrud, I. Bison, E. Solheim (2010): Social Class in Europe II: The European Social Survey 2002-2008. Trondheim: Norwegian University of Technology and Science. Scripts for construction of skill rarity in the newer editions of ESS — A. Tawfik, D. Oesch (2015): Script to construct an indicator of social class in the ESS. Geneva/Lausanne.

The class schemes were recreated using R scripts translated from the Leiulsfrud et al.'s (2010) SPSS script. The skill structure in the data after 2012 was constructed basing on the Oesch's class grid (2015), whereas the Oesch's classes 5, 13, 19 were classified as experts (excluding secondary and vocational teachers), the classes 6, 7, 10, 14 classes as skilled labour force (including secondary and vocational teachers) and the classes 8, 11, 12, 15, 16 as non-skilled labour force.