|Relation to means of production|
Number of employees
|Many||Capitalists||Expert managers||Skilled managers||Nonskilled managers||Managers|
Relation to authority
|Few||Small employers||Expert supervisors||Skilled supervisors||Nonskilled supervisors||Supervisors|
|None||Petty bourgeoisie||Experts||Skilled workers||Nonskilled workers||Non-management|
|Relation to scarce skills|
Reference: Data — European Social Survey. Class scheme — E.O. Wright (1997): Class Counts: Comparative Studies in Class Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 1-42. Scripting — H. Leiulsfrud, I. Bison, E. Solheim (2010): Social Class in Europe II: The European Social Survey 2002-2008. Trondheim: Norwegian University of Technology and Science. Scripts for construction of skill rarity in the newer editions of ESS — A. Tawfik, D. Oesch (2015): Script to construct an indicator of social class in the ESS. Geneva/Lausanne.
The class schemes were recreated using R scripts translated from the Leiulsfrud et al.'s (2010) SPSS script. The skill structure in the data after 2012 was constructed basing on the Oesch's class grid (2015), whereas the Oesch's classes 5, 13, 19 were classified as experts (excluding secondary and vocational teachers), the classes 6, 7, 10, 14 classes as skilled labour force (including secondary and vocational teachers) and the classes 8, 11, 12, 15, 16 as non-skilled labour force.