Social Class in Europe

Small Capitalists
Petty bourgeoisie
Expert managers
Expert supervisors
Skilled managers
Skilled supervisors
Skilled workers
Nonskilled managers
Nonskilled supervisors
Nonskilled workers

Reference: Data — European Social Survey. Class scheme — E.O. Wright (1997): Class Counts: Comparative Studies in Class Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 1-42. Scripting — H. Leiulsfrud, I. Bison, E. Solheim (2010): Social Class in Europe II: The European Social Survey 2002-2008. Trondheim: Norwegian University of Technology and Science. Scripts for construction of skill rarity in the newer editions of ESS — A. Tawfik, D. Oesch (2015): Script to construct an indicator of social class in the ESS. Geneva/Lausanne.

The class schemes were recreated using R scripts translated from the Leiulsfrud et al.'s (2010) SPSS script. The skill structure in the data after 2012 was constructed basing on the Oesch's class grid (2015), whereas the Oesch's class 5, 13, 19 were classified as experts (excluding secondary and vocational teachers), the class 6, 7, 10, 14 as skilled labour force (including secondary and vocational teachers) and the class 8, 11, 12, 15, 16 as non-skilled labour force.